Showing posts with label Breast Feeding. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Breast Feeding. Show all posts

Pregnancy By The Months

What Happens in the First Month of Pregnancy?

Pregnancy is divided into 3 trimesters. Each trimester is a little longer than 13 weeks. The first month marks the beginning of the first trimester.

Gestational Age
Pregnancy is measured using “gestational age.” Gestational age starts on the first day of a woman’s last menstrual period (LMP).

Gestational age can be confusing. Most people think of pregnancy as lasting nine months. And it’s true that a woman is pregnant for about nine months. But because pregnancy is measured from a woman’s last menstrual period — about 3-4 weeks before she is actually pregnant — a full-term pregnancy usually totals about 40 weeks from LMP — roughly 10 months.

Many women do not remember the exact date of their last menstrual period — that’s OK. The surest way to tell gestational age early in pregnancy is with ultrasound.

Weeks 1–2

These are the first two weeks of a woman’s menstrual cycle. She has her period.  About 2 weeks later, the egg that is most mature is released from the ovary — ovulation. Ovulation may happen earlier or later, depending on the length of a woman’s menstrual cycle. The average menstrual cycle is 28 days.
After it is released, the egg travels down a fallopian tube toward the uterus. If the egg meets a sperm, they combine to form one cell. This is called fertilization. Fertilization is most likely to occur when a woman has unprotected vaginal intercourse during the 6 days that lead into ovulation.

Weeks 3–4

The fertilized egg moves down the fallopian tube and divides into more and more cells. It reaches the uterus about 3–4 days after fertilization. The dividing cells then form a ball that floats free in the uterus for about 2–3 days.
Pregnancy begins when the ball of cells attaches to the lining of the uterus. This is called implantation. It usually starts about 6 days after fertilization and takes about 3–4 days to be complete.
Pregnancy does not always occur. Up to half of all fertilized eggs pass out of women’s bodies during regular menstruation before implantation is complete.
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Learn more about how pregnancy happens.

A Woman’s First Signs of Pregnancy
For many women, the first sign of pregnancy is a missed period. Most pregnancy tests will be positive by the time a woman has missed her period. Other early signs of pregnancy include fatigue, feeling bloated, frequent urination, mood swings, nausea, and tender or swollen breasts. Not all women have all of these symptoms, but it is common to have at least one of them. 

What Happens in the Second Month of Pregnancy?

EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT
The ball of cells develops into an embryo at the start of the sixth week. The embryonic stage of pregnancy will last about 5 weeks. During this time all major internal organs begin developing.

Weeks 5–6

  • The embryo is less than 1/5 inch (4–5 mm) long.
  • A very basic beating heart and circulatory system develop.
  • Buds for arms and legs develop.
  • The neural tube begins forming. The neural tube will later form the brain, spinal cord, and major nerves.
  • The bud of a tail develops.
  • The umbilical cord begins developing.
Pregnancy Week 6

Weeks 7–8

  • The embryo is 1/4 to 1/2 inch (7–14 mm) long.
  • The heart has formed.
  • Webbed fingers and toes develop.
  • The arms bend at elbows.
  • External ears, eyes, eyelids, liver, and upper lip have begun forming.
  • The sex organs are the same — neither female nor male — in all embryos until the seventh or eighth week. If a gene triggers the development of testes, the embryo develops as a male. If there is no trigger, the embryo develops ovaries and becomes female.
Pregnancy Week 8

PREGNANCY SYMPTOMS

The second month is often when pregnancy symptoms become very noticeable.  Common discomforts like breast tenderness, fatigue, frequent urination, heartburn, nausea, and vomiting usually get worse. A woman’s body produces extra blood during pregnancy, and her heart beats faster and harder than usual to carry the extra blood.

What Happens in the Third Month of Pregnancy?

FETAL DEVELOPMENT

Weeks 9–10

  • The embryo develops into a fetus after 10 weeks. It is 1–1.5 inches (21–40 mm) long.
  • The tail disappears.
  • Fingers and toes are longer.
  • The umbilical cord connects the abdomen of the fetus to the placenta.  The placenta is attached to the wall of the uterus. It absorbs nutrients from the woman’s bloodstream. The cord carries nutrients and oxygen to the fetus and takes wastes away from the fetus.
Pregnancy Week 10

Weeks 11–12

The fetus is now measured from the top of its head to its buttocks. This is called crown-rump length (CRL).
  • The fetus has a CRL of 2–3 inches (6–7.5 cm).
  • Fingers and toes are no longer webbed.
  • Bones begin hardening.
  • Skin and fingernails begin to grow.
  • Changes triggered by hormones begin to make external sex organs appear — female or male.
  • The fetus begins making spontaneous movements.
  • Kidneys start making urine.
  • Early sweat glands appear.
  • Eyelids are fused together.
Pregnancy Week 12

PREGNANCY SYMPTOMS

Many of the pregnancy symptoms from the first 2 months continue — and sometimes worsen — during the third month. This is especially true of nausea. A woman’s breasts continue growing and changing. The area around the nipple — the areola — may grow larger and darker. Women who are prone to acne may experience outbreaks.
Women do not usually gain much weight during the first 3 months of pregnancy — usually about 2 pounds. Women who are overweight or underweight may experience a different rate of weight gain. Talk with your health care provider about maintaining a healthy weight throughout pregnancy.

Miscarriage
Most early pregnancy loss — miscarriage — happens in the first trimester. About 15 percent of pregnancies result in early pregnancy loss during the first trimester.

Learn more about miscarriage.

What Happens in the Fourth Month of Pregnancy?

The fourth month marks the beginning of the second trimester.
FETAL DEVELOPMENT

Weeks 13–14

  • The fetus has a CRL of about 3 inches (8 cm).
  • The sex of the fetus can sometimes be seen by looking at external sex organs on an ultrasound.
  • Hair begins to grow.
  • The prostate gland begins developing in male fetuses.
  • Ovaries move down from the abdomen to the pelvic area in female fetuses.
  • The roof of the mouth is formed.
Pregnancy Week 14

Weeks 15–16

  • The fetus has a CRL of about 4.5 inches (12 cm).
  • Hundreds of thousands of eggs are forming in the ovaries in female fetuses.

PREGNANCY SYMPTOMS

Some of the early signs and symptoms of pregnancy begin to be relieved during the fourth month. Nausea is usually reduced. But other digestive problems — heartburn and constipation — may be troublesome. Breast changes — growth, soreness, and darkening of the areola — usually continue. It’s common for women to have shortness of breath or to breathe faster. Increased blood flow may lead to unpleasant pregnancy symptoms, such as bleeding gums, nosebleeds, or nasal stuffiness. Pregnant women also may feel dizzy or faint because of the changes to their blood and blood vessels.

What Happens in the Fifth Month of Pregnancy?

Weeks 17–18

  • The fetus has a CRL of 5.5–6 inches (14–15 cm).
Pregnancy Week 18

Weeks 19–20

  • The fetus has a CRL of about 6.5 inches (16 cm).  
  • Lanugo  — a fine downy hair — covers the body. 
  • The skin is also covered with vernix caseosa, a greasy material that protects the skin.
  • A uterus has formed in a female fetus.

PREGNANCY SYMPTOMS

Women usually feel fetal movements for the first time during the fifth month. It may feel like flutters or butterflies in the stomach. This is called quickening.
The pregnancy symptoms of the fourth month continue this month. Heartburn, constipation, breast changes, dizziness, shortness of breath, nosebleeds, and gum bleeding are common. Breasts may be as much as 2 cup sizes bigger by this time.

What Happens in the Sixth Month of Pregnancy?

FETAL DEVELOPMENT

Weeks 21–22

  • The fetus has a CRL of about 7 inches (18–19 cm).
  • Bone marrow starts making blood cells.
  • Taste buds begin to form.
Pregnancy Week 22

Weeks 23–24

  • The fetus has a CRL of about 8 inches (20 cm).
  • Eyebrows and eyelashes usually develop between weeks 23 and 26.

PREGNANCY SYMPTOMS

Pregnancy symptoms from the fourth and fifth month usually continue. Shortness of breath may improve. Breasts may start producing colostrum — tiny drops of early milk. This may continue throughout pregnancy.
Some women have Braxton-Hicks contractions. They feel like a painless squeezing of the uterus or abdomen. This is the uterus’s way of practicing for labor and delivery. Braxton-Hicks contractions are normal and not a sign of preterm labor. But women should check with their health care providers if they have painful or frequent contractions or if they have any concerns.

What Happens in the Seventh Month of Pregnancy?

FETAL DEVELOPMENT

Weeks 25–26

  • The fetus has a CRL of about 9 inches (23 cm).
  • The fetus develops more and more fat from now until the end of pregnancy.

Week 27–28

  • The fetus has a CRL of about 10 inches (25 cm).
  • Eyelids are usually fused together until about 28 weeks.
Pregnancy Week 28
PREGNANCY SYMPTOMS
A woman’s uterus continues expanding. Back pain is common. Pregnancy symptoms from earlier months continue. Dizziness may lessen.

What Happens in the Eighth Month of Pregnancy?

The eighth month marks the beginning of the third trimester.
FETAL DEVELOPMENT

Week 29–30

  • The fetus has a CRL of about 10.5 inches (27 cm).
  • Testes usually begin descending into the scrotum from the abdomen between weeks 30 and 34 in a male fetus. This is usually complete by 40 weeks.

Week 31–32

  • The fetus has a CRL of about 11 inches (28 cm).
  • Lanugo starts falling off.
PREGNANCY SYMPTOMS
Women often start feeling tired and have a more difficult time breathing as the uterus expands up. They may get varicose veins — blue or red swollen veins most often in the legs — or hemorrhoids — varicose veins of the rectum. Hemorrhoids can be painful and itchy and cause bleeding. Women may also get stretch marks where skin has been expanded. Braxton-Hicks contractions, heartburn, and constipation may continue. Women may urinate a bit when sneezing or laughing because of pressure from the uterus on the bladder. Hormones may make hair appear fuller and healthier.

What Happens in the Ninth Month?

FETAL DEVELOPMENT

Week 33–34

  • The fetus has a CRL of about 12 inches (30 cm).
  • The eyes have developed enough for pupils to constrict and dilate when exposed to light.
  • Lanugo is nearly all gone.

Week 35–36

  • The fetus has a CRL of about 12.5 inches (32 cm).
  • The fetus is considerably fatter, and the skin is no longer wrinkled.
PREGNANCY SYMPTOMS
The growing fetus places more and more strain on a pregnant woman’s body. Common pregnancy symptoms continue through the end of pregnancy, including fatigue, trouble sleeping, trouble holding urine, shortness of breath, varicose veins, and stretch marks. Some fetuses drop down into the lower part of the uterus during this month. This may relieve the woman’s constipation and heartburn that are common earlier in pregnancy. But some fetuses do not drop down until the very end of pregnancy.

What Happens in the Tenth Month?

FETAL DEVELOPMENT

Week 37–38

  • The fetus has a CRL of about 13–14 inches (34–36 cm).
  • The fetus has a firm grasp.

Week 39–40

Many women give birth around this time.
  • The average newborn weighs 7–8 lbs. and is between 18–22 inches (46–56 cm) long with legs extended.
  • Almost all of the vernix and lanugo are gone. It is common for newborns to have some lanugo that disappears over the first few months of life.
Pregnancy Week 40
PREGNANCY SYMPTOMS
By the end of pregnancy, the uterus has expanded from a woman’s pelvis to the bottom of her rib cage. Pregnancy symptoms in the tenth month largely depend on when the fetus drops down into lower part of the uterus in the pelvis.
Shortness of breath, heartburn, and constipation usually improve when the fetus drops. But the position of the fetus lower in the pelvis causes frequent urination and trouble holding urine.
The cervix will begin to open — dilate — to prepare for delivery. This may happen a few weeks before delivery, or it might start when a woman goes into labor. A woman may feel sharp pains in her vagina as the cervix dilates.
After the newborn is delivered, the placenta and other tissues also come out of the woman’s body. This is called the afterbirth.
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Planned Parenthood

Best Advice For Breastfeeding in Public

The advice on breastfeeding seems to flow thick and fast. Please forgive the pun. Some advice is often quite prescriptive; particularly to new mothers in the beginning, from well intentioned and busy midwives. Often the best advice comes from other Mums who have been there recently and learnt from their experience. Forums such as �mumsnet� are often invaluable sources of frank and honest advice. If you read just some of the posts, the main thread of advice that comes through is; relax, take the prescriptive advice with a pinch of salt, let baby take the lead a bit and don�t get stress about it! After all, the alternative is far from the end of the world!











It is important to know that babies are individuals. They may have slightly different feeding patterns, or yours may have a bigger appetite than others! Newborns can cluster feed in the evenings. Feeding all night for the first few weeks doesn't mean they've got night and day mixed up and is actually not to bad a situation, because night is when levels of hormones are higher and it helps get breastfeeding established. Also, wear a sleeping bra, but make sure it isn't too tight or you could end up with mastitis.

One of the main initial problems women encounter when breastfeeding is �latching on�. There are many sources of advice on this, not least your midwife, and it is wise to establish that the baby is latched on properly and is getting milk before you leave the hospital. If you are unsure what you are doing is working, don�t be afraid to get a second opinion. Another great source of advice about latching on is on the Dr Jack Newman website.

Then comes the issue of feeding in public. After all, baby does not know when you are meeting a friend for coffee or sat in the doctor�s waiting room waiting for a check up. This can be another substantial source of anxiety and another reason why mums choose to stop early on.

This need not be the case though. It is virtually impossible to organize your life around feeding times and therefore it is best to be more relaxed about it and just be prepared. There are many products available that can assist mums (and their babies) to gain confidence in the early days of breastfeeding in public. The breastfeeding cover (or apron) is one such product. These covers can work well throughout your days of breastfeeding in public, particularly as baby gets older and is more prone to distraction. The breastfeeding cover / apron creates a nice cocooned environment for you both. This way, if you do feel a little self conscious when breastfeeding in public, you can cover up using an apron. Many mothers use cloths but this tends to not be as comfortable for the baby, and as a mother, you lose eye contact with the baby and can�t check as easily whether they are feeding well.

Advice comes from all directions when you are a new mum, and much of it seems contradictory. It can be a great strain when you are worried about doing the right thing. Probably the best advice is to listen but in the end, judge what seems to be right for your baby.
About The Author
Dawn Callery is a mother who understands the pressure on mothers to breastfeed. As owner of Freedom Babe, she strives to offer innovative, tried and tested products designed to make life easier for new mothers. The is the first in a planned range of products available from Freedom Babe.

TEL 0845 5438463 WEB www.freedombabe.co.uk
The author invites you to visit:
http://www.freedombabe.co.uk










Why Some Pregnancy Books Cause More Harm Than Good

With the rise in holistic medicine and alternative healing, it�s surprising Dr. Jennifer Barham-Floreani�s Well Adjusted Babies is one of the few pregnancy books available on the subject for mothers and babies. �Dr. Jen� as she is known, must be an overachiever type, because the book is over 700 pages!

The length also tells us that there was a huge untapped need for pregnancy books about holistic healing for babies and kids.

Well Adjusted Babies has been out a few years now. And yet nothing seems to have changed in the world of traditional pregnancy books. There is barely a whisper in most of them about anything holistic.

That�s like a 90-story skyscraper being built next to your house and you pretend you don�t see or hear anything!











A U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Center for Disease Control and Prevention study said the use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine has grown by leap and bounds from 2002 to 2009.

In Australia, the Alternative and Complementary Medicine industry is estimated to be worth over $1 billion and growing at over 30% per year.

And yet, traditional pregnancy books reflect the values of the larger world of mainstream medicine in general: treat the symptoms while avoiding or ignoring the root cause.

The only thing involving preventive care for most traditional medical practitioners is changing the oil every month in their luxury cars.

It�s funny they call it �traditional medicine� when over reliance on drugs and symptomology is fairly recent in history. Some so called �alternative� medical practices have been effective for 5,000 years!

So has Dr. Jen mellowed her message?

Let�s see�in recent years she�s published the 2nd edition of Well Adjusted Babies with new chapters, case studies, and the latest research; expanded her website and blog WellAdjustedBabies.com; and recently she completed a series of TV and radio appearances around Australia.

Looks like she�s in to win it.

...

About Dr Jennifer Barham-Floreani

Recently awarded �Woman of the Year� (WCWC) and �Australian Chiropractor of the Year�, Dr Jennifer is an accomplished pediatric chiropractor with four children of her own. Aside from pregnancy books, Dr Jennifer also regularly writes information for parents and chiropractors about holistic parenting in her blog.

If you would like to find out more information about Dr Jennifer, her books, or visit her free Pregnancy & Parenting resource blog, please take a look at http://www.welladjusted.me
About The Author
Matt is an independent journalist and pregnancy books reviewer based in Melbourne.
The author invites you to visit:
http://www.welladjustedbabies.com










"I was supposed to still be pregnant!"

Thinking she still had 2 months to plan for the arrival of her baby boy, Yolandi Boshoff got the shock of her life when she was told it was time...
 
 
"I was supposed to still be pregnant!"
 
 
 

2 months to go...right?

It was the end of 2008 and I had just stopped working. I was 32 weeks pregnant and just starting to worry about how I could possibly occupy myself for the next 2 months. Little was I to know that Ben would decide his arrival should be at 32 weeks.

Diagnosed with pre-eclampsia

Earlier in December I was diagnosed and hospitalised with pre-eclampsia (pregnancy-induced high blood pressure), which was very strange considering that I was usually the one with low blood pressure.

Monitoring blood pressure and protein levels

After my release I had to monitor my blood pressure 3 times a day at home, as well as the protein levels in my urine – apparently if these 2 are out of sync, it could be extremely dangerous for both mom and baby.
So we had just spent a lovely Christmas with my family and they left to go back to Jo'burg on New Year's Day. At this point I was walking around with ankles the size of tree trunks and I could wear exactly one pair of flip flops as nothing else fitted my boat-sized feet. My mother had kept me on my back for most of Christmas but no amount of feet in the air would make these babies go down!

Blood pressure and protein readings out of sync

I woke up on Friday 2 January to find that the 2 readings where slightly out of sync, and I was feeling pretty horrible... but that was how I'd been feeling for a month so why worry now?
But Rob insisted that we go off to the emergency rooms; he felt things were not right. After arguing for about 30 minutes, he basically forced me into some clothes, combed my hair and stuck me in the car!

Admitted to hospital and pumped full of steroids

When I was admitted, the doctor thanked him for bringing me in; they pumped me full of steroids and started monitoring my blood pressure and Ben’s heart rate. I spent Friday and Saturday in hospital thinking things where getting better, and then on Sunday morning at 9am, after another set of tests and readings, the nurse walked into my room and said that they have to take Ben out at 10:30...

Emergency C-section

What a shocker! I just burst into tears as I was supposed to still be pregnant and not sitting here prepping for an emergency C-section.Poor Rob rushed to phone all the family in Jo'burg and the UK to warn them. Lucky for me I live with the calmest man under the sun and he just took over and made me feel a lot more relaxed.
He had also spent the last 2 nights alone at home making my birthing CD as he was expecting this to happen more than I was. Once I was admitted to the theatre they played my CD and it was so amazing, I still remember listening to our Googoo Dolls song and waiting for the anaesthetist to try and do the epidural while Rob was hugging me.

Having to go under

Needless to say, with the amount of water retention I had (20kg at that stage), the doc could not get the needle into the right spot. I still remember sitting back up and the doctor saying that they needed to put me under for the C-section.










"He was born to one of my favourite songs"

On the mask went and I was out – this all happened in the space of a couple of songs. Rob experienced the birth on my behalf, took tons of photos and my son was born to one of my favourite songs, and I still get tears in my eyes every time I hear it on the radio!

Waking up

I woke up a few hours later in a total morphine daze, and I remember them putting this little bundle on my chest... He was so small but he was healthy and alive! The rest of the day was a complete blur, but at least I woke up on Monday morning feeling a lot better and in touch with reality.

A healthy baby boy

So Ben weighed in at 1.6kg, and he was the cutest little miniature baby ever. Lucky for us there were no complications and he didn’t even have to go on the ventilators. The doctors made the right choice by starting the steroids on the day I checked in.
3 weeks later he weighed a whole 2kg, I weighed 20kg less and he came home! Ben is now 18 months old and weighs almost 12kg and is the healthiest little boy!










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